Flash Extractor
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Memory cells
Memory cell

You can think about it as cup with water. Flash memory manufacturers compete with each other. First of all they try make flash drives with bigger capacity. To make it they need make smaller memory cell size. Then more memory cells can be put on same size chip:



Distance between Probe and water level become very small. Memory cells is not ideal. With time or immediately after filling water level become less. If water level become less then Probe level, we will read wrong value. If water level and probe level is equal we get random value:


Some memory chips have registers that can change Probe level. If we make it little lower, then it will be lower then water level, and we can read correct cell value

This registers is Read Retry registers
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